Our job as an agency is to provide value to our clients and help them woo and win their best potential customers. After all, marketing, according to Peter Drucker, is about understanding the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Value added marketing is one way to do exactly that.

Agencies are under the same gun – we have to be able to demonstrate value. But the game has changed and many agency owners are trying to re-tool their shop in today’s new selling environment. That’s why I knew I wanted to interview Sam Mallikarjunan, Marketing Fellow and Head of Growth at Hubspot Labs. Sam teaches advanced digital marketing at Harvard and has insight into how successful agencies are selling today and keeping clients by defining and delivering value.

Sam will encourage you to roll up your sleeves and really dig into your client’s business so you can help them make sense of all the information that is out there today, understand what needs to be done with and how to measure that information and be a driving force to get it all done.

Join Sam and I as we discover all the ways you can provide value to your clients and your own shop with:

  • The way the internet has changed selling so that there’s almost too much information
  • How salespeople can help consumers sift through the breadth of information out there
  • Structuring sales calls so they’re all about asking the buyers questions about their business
  • The power of inbound: competition where no one else is competing
  • Learning to say no to bad revenue
  • Why you need to build buyer personas — both for your ideal customers and customers that you don’t want to do business with because they’re going to cost you money
  • Why clients need agencies to teach them what to do — not how to do it
  • Getting involved with your client’s complete business — including the sales side of their business
  • How to get your clients to treat your agency like a partner instead of a vendor
  • Value Added Marketing: What it is and why you need to utilize it

Sam Mallikarjunan is a Marketing Fellow at HubSpot and former Head of Growth at HubSpot Labs, the somewhat-secret experimental arm of the world’s #1 Sales & Marketing platform. Sam teaches Advanced Digital Marketing at the Harvard Division of Continuing Education and he is also the co-author of the book How to Sell Better Than Amazon (which, thanks to the publisher, is ironically available for purchase on Amazon).

To listen – you can visit the Build A Better Agency site (https://agencymanagementinstitute.com/sam-mallikarjunan/) and grab either the iTunes or Stitcher files or just listen to it from the web.

If you’d rather just read the conversation, the transcript is below:

Table of Contents (Jump Straight to It!)

  1. More on Sam’s Background
  2. How Sales has Changed
  3. Value, Value, Value
  4. The Netflix Example of Value Added Marketing
  5. Relevant Selling Techniques
  6. Marketing and Trust
  7. Why You Must Say “No” to Bad Revenue
  8. Building Personas You Will Not Sell to
  9. Why Knowing Your Audience is Key
  10. The More Measurable the Better
  11. Marketing vs. Sales
  12. Maintaining Relationships
  13. Where to Find Sam Mallikarjunan


More on Sam’s Background

If you’re going to take the risk of running an agency, shouldn’t you get the benefits too? Welcome to Agency Management Institute’s Build a Better Agency podcast. Presented by Hubspot.

We’ll show you how to build an agency that can scale and grow with better clients, invested employees, and best of all, more money to the bottom line. Bringing his 25 plus years of experience as both an agency owner and agency consultant to you.

Please welcome your host, Drew McLellan.

Drew: Hey everybody. Drew McLellan here with another episode of Build a Better Agency. Today’s conversation is going to go all over the board. We’re going to talk about sales. We’re going to talk about business models. We’re going to talk about this notion of bad revenue inside an agency.

Let me tell you a little bit about the guest who has the depth and breadth to have that kind of conversation. Sam … Oh, you know what, Sam. I knew I was going to do it. I want to try it though. Mallikarjunan, right?

Sam: Yeah. I’m seriously debating changing my legal name to Sam from Hubspot. More people say it anyways. But, yeah, Mallikarjunan.

Drew: Mallikarjunan. See, I practiced before we hit record. I did it right three times. Then, the pressure of the red button made me …

Sam: I know.

Drew: Anyway, let me tell you a little bit about Sam. Sam is a marketing fellow at Hubspot. He’s the former head of growth at Hubspot labs. He’s worked in agencies, he’s worked with Hubspot’s partner program. He also teaches advanced digital marketing at the Harvard division of continuing education.

He has written a book called How to Sell Better than Amazon, which he notes in his remarks that it’s ironically available for purchase at Amazon.

Has had a wide variety of experiences that are very relevant to you and to me. We’re gonna just dig right into that. Sam, welcome to the podcast.

Sam: Thanks for having me. I’m really looking forward to it.

Drew: Yeah. I’m excited. I’m worried that we’re not going to be able to get it all in in an hour, but I will do my best.

Sam: No worries.

Drew: One of the things that you talk about is that the rules of sales have changes. Give us a little bit of context around that. As you know, agency owners typically are the primary sales person inside their shop. For many of them it’s not something that they’re drawn to or something they’ve been trained to do. It’s just a necessity of the job.

Agency owners are always anxious about, and eager to talk about sales.

Sam: Yeah. The fundamental nature of sales has changed. I say that with … I’m going to start off with a confession. You just have to promise you’ll forgive me. You know those really annoying people in the mall who try to sell you cell phones?

Drew: Yes.

Sam: I used to train them.

Drew: Wow.

Sam: Yeah. But, I have changed. I’ve progressed since then. But, that used to be how we did sales. It was Glengarry Glen Ross, put that coffee down. Always be closing. We literally showed Glengarry Glen Ross and Boiler Room in sales training back then.

It was smile and dial, greet to eat. Just trying to crush through sales. That actually worked pre-internet.

Drew: Right.


How Sales has Changed

Sam: Because, anytime somebody needed anything, I was the gatekeeper as the sales rep, I was the gatekeeper of all the information. If they wanted to know featured they had to ask me. If they wanted to know pricing, ask me. If they wanted testimonials, they were going to get introduced to my buddy from college. All of that is changed now.

Now, I almost feel bad when I go buy a car.

Drew: It does seem a little unfair, doesn’t it?

Sam: Yeah, it’s really unfair. First of all, I find the guy who’s still in the parking lot when it’s zero degrees outside at the end of the month. He’s missing quota, so he’s fun to play with. He or she.

But, then when I get in there, he’s lost all of his power. I already know every model of car on his lot. I know what everybody else has paid for it. I know reviews of all the features. I know what his company has paid for that particular vehicle.

All of the traditional negotiating leverage, or this idea that you’re going to be the gatekeeper of information and dribble it out and use that as your method of persuasion, it’s completely dead. The always be closing methodology is completely dead.

The bright side is that the new way of sales is actually a lot more fun and enjoyable and professionally personally fulfilling, which is that the problem is I have too much information.

I’ve got the entire history and wisdom of the human race literally in my pocket and a ton of cat videos too.

Drew: I was gonna say and Angry Birds.

Sam: All these … Angry Birds, or whatever.

What I need sales reps to help me with is to help me make sense of all that. To help turn … I don’t actually know that this is included in the pitch sheet, but my wife and I live on the road full time in a converted Mercedes Sprinter van. When I was buying that …

Drew: Really?

Sam: Yeah, yeah. We are in Yukon Territory, Canada right now, on our way to Anchorage, Alaska. We’ll dig into that later. But, when I was buying the vehicle, what I needed was somebody to help me understand, okay, here’s the job to be done that I’m trying to accomplish. Henry Ford’s famous quote, if he’d asked his customers what they wanted, they would’ve said a faster horse.

Obviously, he didn’t open the Henry Ford horse breeding company, he opened the Ford Motor Company.

I needed somebody who understood what I was trying to do, and could help me make sense of the ridiculous amount of information, all the different features and everything else like that. It’s flipped the buying cycle on its head. It’s just more enjoyable, too.


Value, Value, Value

If you’re familiar with Hubspot, if you ever gotten a call from one of our reps, it’s weird for me. Because I went from the malls, having people literally throw stuff at us, to hopping on Hubspot sales calls. People get excited. They get excited to talk to sales reps. Because, they know that what it’s actually going to be is a value added conversation about their business.

When you’re … Whether you’re selling agencies, or whatever it is you’re selling, starting from that perspective of understanding the customer and helping them make sense of the information in the world, and giving value before you ask for value, actually will close more deals.Value added marketing stems from this idea. You are more likely to hit quota if you are good at that than if you’re a good … what we call classical closer.

Drew: How do you combine that notion, that idea of it’s really a more helpful sale, a more authentic sale. It’s a more … I’m helping you parse out from all of the information, the information that you need to make the best decision. How do you combine that notion with all of the emphasis on inbound and email marketing, and all of that?

How does that all intersect, do you think, for an agency owner. I’m a typical agency owner.  If I can sell four to six good size new clients a year, that’s a great … that’s a good year for me. Because, I’m keeping most of my clients.

I don’t need to sell millions of people. I just need to find a few of the right people. How does all of this, from your perspective, fit together in this new … rules of sales?

Sam: Let’s break that question into two components. One is, how does it fit with the inbound value added marketing, inbound lead flow? It changes the whole context of the conversation.

Or, like if I called you and said, “Hey, Drew. This is Sam from Hubspot. I just want to take 15 minutes of your time and tell you how our software can help you grow.”

You don’t want to talk to me, man. Let’s be honest.

Drew: Right.

Sam: You’re going to hang up if you answer at all. But, if I call you and I say that, hey Drew, I saw you downloaded the guide to using podcasts to generate sales leads. You know, I took a look at some of the other podcasts in your industry, but before we talk about that, what are you working on? Why podcasting, why now, and we just spend the whole time talking about you … First of all, I get all of my qualifying questions answered that are near to the sales process. But, I do it from the perspective of, here’s some information I’m doing for you.

I think this is what people forget about value added marketing, especially in a B2B role, our job is to start value added conversations between two people, between a sales rep and a prospect. Our job is to make the start to that conversation as valuable to the prospect as we can, and with as much contextual information for the sales rep as we can.

Now the worst … The least work that we can do is tell the sales team to cold call. Because, there is no context on the prospect’s side, and there’s only whatever the publicly available information is on the sales rep side.

The best way that we can do it is to get the customer to give … or, to get the prospect to give us information in advance that we can then pass along to the sales rep.


The Netflix Example of Value Added Marketing

The best model for this, I think actually, is actually Netflix. Even though it’s not at all a B2B sales model. I’ve rated between 800 and 900 movies for Netflix. The reason I do that is because I know … Because, most of us would kill to have our customers fill out a 900 question survey. But, I do that because I know that Netflix is going to use that information to make my experience better.

They’re not going to just use it to spam me or whatever. They use it to make the experience that I have with Netflix better. I’m willing to give them all that information. It’s the same psychology in inbound marketing and inbound sales, is consumers will give us a lot of information in exchange for some educational material, and as long as we make it clear that, listen, we’re going to use this information to help you make a better decision. Because, that’s what prospects really want help with.

Then, splitting up the second piece of the question, which is not just how it fits into the sales process, but how it fits into the designs and such, of the agency. You’re going to get, by definition, when you’re doing value added marketing, when you’re educating people, you’re not going to get people who are ready to buy right now. You’re going to get some of those. But, you’re not going to … That’s not going to be the only people that you get.

Yeah, it’s not going to be the only people that you get, because, by definition what you’re doing is you’re moving up the buying cycle and deciding to compete in the awareness and research phases of the buying cycle. Because, if you’re competing in the purchase phase in the buying cycle, first of all you’ve lost all your power. The only thing left is price.

Drew: Now, you’re basically in the RFP model, right?

Sam: Yeah.

Drew: Now, you’re just filling out the form with everybody else.

Sam: Yeah. And, you’re competing against just whoever has more money. If you’ve ever done PPC and bid on terms for … for purchase phase, like buy whatever now sort of terms, you’re going to be hit with whoever’s willing to take the lowest margin of profit on the process.


Relevant Selling Techniques

The concept of inbound marketing and inbound sales is let’s build an audience of people to whom the product or service might be relevant, and then, let’s nurture that audience along an acquisition life cycle.

You were saying, for example, yeah, you might only do four or five deals a year. But, there’s still a … That four or five deals a year can be powered incredibly by a 100,000 person community of people who you’ve given free education to.

I like to use … He actually worked at an agency by the way before he became a Hubspot customer. There was this guy who got a tattoo of the Hubspot sprocket on his leg. It was because …

Drew: Wow. Okay that is serious customer loyalty.

Sam: I know. First of all it’s weird. I mean, let’s be honest, that’s weird.

Drew: Right.

Sam: We’re a software company, so that’s weird. But, it was because we did all this information that helped him get into the world of marketing. He read our blog, all of our webinars, etc. We had a certification that helped him get his job and a community board, jobs board, Indog.org that helped him get a job.

Then, we have this ongoing support to help him be successful. Even if he’s not … he wasn’t a customer, but even if he wasn’t a customer at the time that he got that tattoo, do you really think that we’re going to have to compete on price when it comes to …

Drew: Right.

Sam: Once he does have the authority, and the budget or whatever … Whatever reason was keeping him from buying at the time, once he does have that we’re not going to have to compete on price. That’s an extreme example. But, that is … When you’re talking about filling your pipeline, particularly with agencies, that’s the real power of inbound, is you’re competing where no one else is competing, it’s very … it’s brutal. It’s hard to teach and to educate and compete in that phase.

If you do it successfully, you’re going to see a lot of positive results.

Drew: Yeah, absolutely. Well, and I think the other part of that too, is that it … I actually think that the new model of sales fits much better with an agency model. Most agency people that I know love to teach, they love to help their clients have those aha moments.

They like to guide them along the process. That fits more comfortably. That feels less confrontational, or less yucky than traditional sales.

Sam: Yeah, they’re people people, right?

Drew: Yeah, right.

Sam: You go into a people business … Otherwise they would start a software company, right?

Drew: Right.


Marketing and Trust

Sam: It’s not just yucky, by the way. Every year we do a survey that asks the simple question, who do you trust? In 2016, in North America, at the top were firefighters and teachers. Then, further down are baristas and professional sports athletes. Then, at the very, very bottom, there’s a tiny sliver of people who say they trust politicians and lobbyists. Below them, rounding up to one percent is sales and rounding down to zero percent is marketers.

In North America, in 2016, if you’ve followed politics at all, it was an interesting year, we lost to those people!

Drew: That’s sad, yeah.

Sam: We lost to those people who, in terms of who consumers trust, because we’ve spent the last century abusing people’s attention and making it all about us.

So, yeah, you’re right. It feels better, it’s a more enjoyable sale, particularly for the people people that you tend to find at agencies. And, it’s a better business. It’s better acquisition and retention economics. And, it’s just … It’s better for the world.

Marketing is weird. It’s, as far as I know, one of the few industries that had another industry spring up with the sole intention of stopping us from doing our jobs.

Tevo, and DVR and Ad Blockers. There is a very large industry whose goal is to prevent marketers from doing their jobs. It’s because we’ve been incredibly annoying about it for the last hundred years.

Drew: Yeah. I think this is a better phase for us, hopefully, that’s for sure.

One of the things that agencies are really wrestling with is, as you and I talked about offline before I hit the record button is, agencies are struggling. The whole idea of a retainer, or ongoing work, becomes more and more elusive. Clients are much less likely to sign an agency of record contract. Clients are a little cagier with their budget and they want to … piecemeal it out project by project.


Why You Must Say “No” to Bad Revenue

You were talking about this whole idea of really thinking through and designing the business model, and that there is a way to get more retainer income built into that model. Do you want to talk a little bit about that?

Sam: Yeah, absolutely. If you ever take finance courses, particularly in the US, you’re eventually going to come across the phrase, the cash flow is more important than your mother.

I get that. I get it, and it’s what we’re taught in school. It’s one of the foundations of capitalism is that capital is this scarce resource, and you want to keep cash flowing into the business. Sometimes, you just gotta keep the lights on. I understand that.

But, that being said, there is such a thing as unhealthy revenue. You can grow yourself out of business, either by making it so that the time to pay back, the cost to acquire a customer versus how much they pay you.

If the time to pay back is too long, you could just run out of cash in the bank, that’s one way. Or, if you’re just acquiring them … the wrong types of customer the wrong way, you can lose money.

The cellphone people that I was telling you about, the reason they no longer harass you in malls is because it turned out that the average contract length for somebody who was activated from one of those malls was about three months before they canceled their cellphone contract.

In my store, honestly, it was probably even less. Because, we were just focused on closing. We didn’t really care or talk about what the customer did, and the cellphone company was actually losing money. Even though we were closing deals, we never missed quota. I never missed quota.

Even though we were closing deals, bringing in revenue, the cost to acquire a customer was out of balance with what that customer’s worth to us over the long term. So, they shut down that process.

We know this intuitively. We know that there are some customers who are worth more to us than other customers. We’ve all had that one customer where we’re like, this person has gotta be costing me money. But, what we … We then get stuck in this constant cycle of well, let’s just bring in any revenue. Any revenue is good revenue.

That can be really damaging to the business. Project based work can make sense, and you can actually get good cash flow for it. There’s a time in an agency’s life cycle where that’s absolutely the appropriate thing to do. But, if you want to scale and grow and build a sustainable business with healthy revenue, saying no to potential revenue is actually a very important skillset.

It’s very important, like peace or decision making, so that you can focus on either increasing the monetization of the existing recurring revenue clients, or investing more cash, more capital in acquiring some of those retainer clients.

I know it’s hard. Trust me, I wish we could sell Hubspot ad hoc. Just pay us on a monthly basis or whatever. But no, we have to sell it as a subscription, because we know that if you’re not successful with the software, you’re not going to stay around. You’re not going to be a customer long term.

We know that if we don’t make that work that you’re not going to … that the business model is going to break down. It’s the same thing with an agency. If they’re not successful with the agency work, they’re not going to stick around. You’re not going to be able to build a long term business off of that revenue.

Drew: You know, one of the metrics that I really encourage agencies to look at is profitability by client. Because of exactly what you talking about, is when you look at the money-in in a big bucket, it’s hard to know who’s contributing to that bucket and who’s not, especially compared to what it costs you to service that business.

But, it’s pretty easy when you do a client by client comparison of profitability it’s easy to see. For most agencies the first time they do that, it’s a little disheartening, because they literally, in most cases … for the lower … five or 10% of their clients, they’re paying for the privilege of doing that work for the client.

Sam: Yeah, and it’s easy to brush it off, because we don’t usually, especially in smaller agencies, we don’t charge for our own time. We don’t think about the opportunity cost of other things that I could be doing as well when working with some of those customers.

But, we all know that. The person who’s paying you the least amount of money is always going to be the loudest, most obnoxious and most demanding. If the agencies listening have not yet done the buyer persona exercise, it’s not just a useful exercise because it helps you do better marketing and sales. It is how you should segment the user acquisition economics of your business.

If you want a case study on this by the way, Harvard Business School wrote a case study on Hubspot’s persona based unit economics. But, there’s a reason, for example, that we don’t go out hard after the enterprise space.

Even though the enterprise space might pay us more money, their… I gotta fly 12 people out there to buy 14 other people 26 different steak dinners in order to close the frigging deal. Then, they’re going to keep my … half the engineering team busy.

Drew: Yeah, tweaking.

Sam: For the next six months, customizing it the way they want. We look at yeah, okay, they actually do have a higher monetization value, but they also have a dramatically higher cost of customer acquisition and cost of servicing that deal. Because of that, the business model’s out of balance.

That is why Hubspot stays in the mid-market space. We don’t want to spend a ton of time acquiring and servicing enterprise … There are some enterprises that are way ahead of their time, that do buy things like Hubspot. But, it’s not a good business for us. We don’t want to be in that company.

We actively don’t pursue those people, because we know that putting a dollar into acquiring a mid-market company might give us five dollars out but putting a dollar into acquiring an enterprise company might get us three dollars out, in terms of monetization.

Drew: Well, I think many agencies don’t have a really clear picture of who their sweet spot or their best customers are. So, they tend to, kind of, splash around in the water just looking for anybody and everybody.

In the end, that … Those are the clients, those are the customers who either come and go, or a lot of times I’ll … we’ll look at those numbers and someone will say, yeah, I know we’re not making a lot of money now, but they’re one division of this big company that’s … fill in the blank house, here. Okay, how often has that worked well for you? How often have you taken it in the short for three months, and then all of sudden magically the vault opens up and money just starts pouring out.

But, I don’t know if it’s agency owners are just optimistic, or they’re afraid to say no to any dollar. But, a lot of agencies struggle with this whole idea of this, as you called it, bad revenue of, yeah, I’m taking a dollar in. But, the reality is I’m spending a $1.25 between my labor and all my other expenses to service that dollar.


Building Personas that You Will Not Sell to

Sam: Yeah, we actually have exclusionary buyer persona. People that we won’t sell to, unless there’s a really compelling reason, and as you probably know, we give all of our buyer personas cute alliterative names.

Drew: Of course.

Sam: Like, Marketing Mary and Owner Ollie. Internet Ian is our exclusionary buyer persona. Because … I don’t want to talk about Hubspot too much, but it’s just an example I know well. Our value proposition is that it’s all in one, right?

Drew: Right.

Sam: Everything is stitched together, you have all the tools that you need. Internet Ian is the sort of person who’s going to write their own queries and sequel, and then stitch together their own series of tools using API and Python, and stuff like that.

Even if we could get a person like that to buy Hubspot, they’re going to be such a pain in the butt on our support team and on our product team and everything else, that we’re just not going to sale to you.

You’re right, that is a hard thing to say, but you have to have that vision down the line, where it’s like yes, this might be a short term injection of capital. Again, I get it. Sometimes you need a … just a short term injection of cash.

But, once you get past that, hopefully you don’t live in a persistent state of that. If you do, then we have other problems. But, once you get past whatever that phase is, you have to look at what’s going to be the long term monetization potential, and is this customer going to cost me money?

Yeah, it’s hard. It’s hard. But, yeah, you have to be able to say no to some potential sources of revenue. Otherwise, you’re going to build a business that doesn’t know who it is and that can’t make money.

Drew: I love the idea of having a persona that you won’t sell to. It think that … Because, you know what, as soon as you create that persona, then you recognize them. You go, oh, I get … I know who that is. Okay, I’m going to side step that.

Sam: It feeds the marketing team, too. I was running our expansion into the eCommerce market, and as marketers, it’s easy to fall under the trap of, I want to write content that I find interesting, and it impresses my friends and family. Value added marketing is the right direction.

I had on the queue, I had an ebook that was gonna be the eCommerce Marketer’s Guide to Advanced Statistics. Fortunately, I meet with the sales team, and I listen to their connect calls before I go out and create content. Because again, my goal is to start a conversation between two people.

The sales team saw that on the queue and threatened to throw me out of the fourth floor window. Because, anybody who actually … Because, Hubspot is not a statistics tool. We’re not selling our looker or something here. It’s not even a BI tool really.

Anybody who downloaded the e Commerce Marketer’s Guide to Advanced Statistics would be such a pain in the butt to sell to, and then would be a terrible customer if we actually closed them.

Drew: And be disappointed.

Sam: And be disappointed. Yeah. They would not be happy, successful customers who are going to leave us great reviews on Gartner’s magic quadrant.

So, I can see that in advance, and because we know that Internet Ian persona, the sales team and the services team, or even I should have, before putting it on the list, raised my hand and said, listen, this does not matter to eCommerce Ernie. This is an Internet Ian thing. You’re going to generate the wrong kinds of leads with this, which is going to generate the wrong kinds of sales, which is going to generate the wrong type of revenue.

Drew: Yeah, I think that’s a great idea. I want to dig into a little bit about what you’re teaching in your advanced digital marketing class, but first let’s take a quick break.

Okay, we are back. Right before the break, I told Sam I wanted to pick his brain a little bit about what advanced digital marketing things he’s teaching, because as agency owners, and as an agency leaders, we’re constantly pushing to try and stay ahead of the curve.

If you are building out your curriculum, a couple of things. One, what are some topics that you think agency owners need to have top of mind? Two, what sources do you use to make sure that you’re always staying ahead of the curve?

Sam: I teach with a couple of different schools. The University of South Florida in Tampa, and then Harvard University, obviously. I specifically teach in the division of continuing education.


Why Knowing Your Audience is Key

Knowing your audience is very important. My … I don’t actually like teaching to undergraduates that much. I’ve done some guest lecturing at Boston University and such, because they’re just there to check something off their list. They thought it was going to be an easy class because … They don’t really care.

The people who take my courses, because it’s so … they’re one week intensive courses, are generally existing professionals. They have context, and they’re taking a week out of their time. I’m not going to pretend the courses are cheap.

They’re spending a fair amount of money to go to a course and try and figure out the way of thinking that we have, along with the specifics. If you just want to learn the specifics, there are ways. Inbound.org is a great Web site, just go there ask a question, or go to Quora, ask a question. Wherever you want to go. Somebody will answer it. Or, you can generally find on Twitter or just Googling around the answer to a specific question such as, should I have a country code top level domain for this country I’m expanding into?

That’s a very niche SEO question. You can Google the answer to that. What we focus on is, because these people are existing professionals, one of the people who took my class this spring semester was VP at a Fortune 100 company who had just absorbed the digital marketing team onto his unit. He had previously not managed the digital marketing aspects for this brand.

He took it to try and learn the ways that we look at the world. It’s easy, again, for us to say that it’s super, super obvious that you should measure your entire funnel. But, in the state of inbound report, state of Inbound.com, we found … I think the latest number was 30%, or something, of marketers don’t measure their ROI in any way whatsoever.

Then, looking at it, introducing the concepts of customer centric unit economics. When I say that, what I mean is that idea of persona cohorts, where you put a dollar into acquiring a customer of a specific type. You monetize that specific type of customer over a period of time. That’s actually a newish concept in the world of business.

Specifically the idea that you can lose money to acquire a customer. That’s new. It wasn’t until Jeff Bezos at Amazon really started teaching us that you can grow to be one of the most valuable companies in the world without actually issuing a bunch of dividends.

We touched a lot on that, which is the different frameworks for looking at business and marketing economics. Then, we do go into a lot of specifics. I want … Ironically, given the podcast that I’m talking to … When I’m talking … When I’m teaching SEO or social media or something, the people in my class