You know my drill – you’ve taken a huge risk in starting or buying an agency. I want to make sure you get the rewards that should accompany those risks.

Most agencies have a few KPI (key performance indicators) or agency metrics they track. Unfortunately, most agencies track the wrong ones, like gross billings. I want to make sure you’re measuring what actually matters — the agency metrics that really give you insight into your agency and help you run a more profitable business.

In this solocast, I walk you through the five agency metrics that every agency owner should be tracking and why they matter.

  • Why you have to measure inside your agency
  • The AGI/FTE ratio: why you should be aiming for this to be $150,000 (and why many agencies struggle to reach this goal)
  • Measuring over/under on projects: how often are you over, how often are you under, and by how much?
  • Why you need to look at profitability on a client by client basis (and how to know when to fire a client due to profitability)
  • Why you need a minimum standard AGI for all your clients
  • Why you absolutely need to use timesheets inside your agency (and why this doesn’t mean you should bill by the hour)

Drew McLellan is the Top Dog at Agency Management Institute. For the past 21 years, he has also owned and operated his own agency. Drew’s unique vantage point as being both an active agency owner and working with 250+ small- to mid-size agencies throughout the year, give him a unique perspective on running an agency today.

AMI works with agency owners by:

  • Leading agency owner peer groups
  • Offering workshops for owners and their leadership teams
  • Offering AE bootcamps
  • Conducting individual agency owner coaching
  • Doing on-site consulting
  • Offering online courses in agency new business and account service

Because he works with those 250+ agencies every year — he has the unique opportunity to see the patterns and the habits (both good and bad) that happen over and over again. He has also written two books and been featured in The New York Times, Entrepreneur Magazine, and Fortune Small Business. The Wall Street Journal called his blog “One of 10 blogs every entrepreneur should read.”

To listen – you can visit the Build A Better Agency site ( and grab either the iTunes or Stitcher files or just listen to it from the web.

If you’d rather just read the conversation, the transcript is below:

Table of Contents (Jump Straight to It!)

  1. Agency Metric #1: Ratio Between AGI and FTE
  2. Agency Metric #2: Project Write-Offs and Write-Ups
  3. Agency Metric #3: Profitability by Client
  4. Agency Metric #4: Set a Minimum Engagement per Client
  5. Agency Metric #5: Actually Using Timesheets

If you’re going to take the risk of running an agency, shouldn’t you get the benefits, too? Welcome to Build a Better Agency, where we show you how to build an agency that can scale and grow with better clients, invested employees, and, best of all, more money to the bottom line. Bringing his 25-plus years of expertise as both an agency owner and agency consultant to you, please welcome your host, Drew McLellan.

Drew: Hey, everybody. Drew McLellan here with another episode of Build a Better Agency. This week’s episode is one of my solocasts. So, if you’ve been around for awhile, you probably picked up the pattern, that every fifth episode I don’t have a guest on with me. It’s just me and you, talking about something that I wanna get on your radar screen. Typically, it’s something that has come up in my conversations with agency owners over the last month, over and over and over again, to the point that I think it’s a broad enough topic or an important enough topic that all of you should be thinking about it. Then, we all go back next week to the guest kind of podcast that you are used to, where other folks bring their expertise to the show. So, buckle in.

I wanna talk about some things today that I think are super important and, I think, probably, are on your radar screen but they are on your radar screen in, sort of, stealth mode, meaning this is not the exciting part of owning an agency. This isn’t the reason why you started your agency or bought your agency and this, for most of you, is not the kind of stuff that you love but it’s super important to actually getting out of the business why you got into the business, which is for you to make a good living, for you to be able to take care of your family, for you to be able to take care of your employees and, of course, for you to be able to serve the right kinds of clients and helping them get to the goals that they wanna get to.

So what I wanna talk about today is the whole idea of measuring what matters. And at AMI, we talk a lot about AGI and the AGI ratios and I’m not gonna go into that today. I’ve written about it before.  You can find it on the blog, and I’ve done podcasts on it. I wanna focus on some things that, maybe, are a little less obvious in terms of things that I want you to be monitoring and measuring.

I’m a firm believer in, when something matters to you enough that you measure it and you make it a priority, that’s when you can move the needle on those things. I’m gonna talk to you about five different things that I think really should be on your watch list on a monthly and quarterly basis. And if you start to monitor these things, I think you’re gonna be surprised at the results that you can create inside your shop just by paying attention to these.


Agency Metric #1: Ratio Between AGI and FTE

So the first thing I wanna talk about is I wanna talk about the ratio between AGI and FTE. So AGI, of course, stands for Adjusted Gross Income, so that’s…you take your gross income, your gross billings, you subtract out all of your cost of goods, including all of your contractors. No employee cost should be in there but all of your contractors or freelancers should be up in that cost of goods. So you take gross billings minus cost of goods and what’s left is AGI and that’s the money you actually have to spend on your agency and, typically, that money gets spent in three big areas. It’s gonna be spent on people, so salaries, benefits, that sort of thing. It’s gonna be spent on overhead, rent, transportation, T&E, all of that sort of stuff. And then, hopefully, there’s some left over in the profit bucket.  

So FTEs are full-time equivalents. So this is, you know, if you have people working 40 hours, every one of those counts as a one full-time equivalent and if you have some part-timers you would cobble those together and figure out how many FTEs you have. This does not include freelancers so, again, freelance cost, whether you have an ongoing contract with them and you use them a set amount every week or you use them on a more ad-hoc basis, those are always in the cost of goods category. That’s a variable expense, not a fixed expense like salaries. Salaries, you’re gonna pay people whether they’re working on your business or not, whether they’re on vacation, or they’re sick, or they’re in an all-day agency retreat. They get paid the same, so that’s the salary part.

So, anyway, it used to be, back when I started my agency, that the goal was to have $100,000 of AGI per FTE. And, unfortunately, that number has skyrocketed, and now the target market for you is for you to have $150,000 of AGI per FTE. And the reason why that’s gone up is, quite honestly, a couple of things. One, salaries have gone up significantly as we employ more digital folks, more technical people, and those salaries go higher and, of course, just cost-of-living increases over time. Unfortunately, the challenge with that is, is that for many agencies you guys haven’t changed your billing rates or how you charge clients for the work that you do in many years. So many agencies are squeezed pretty tight on this AGI-to-FTE ratio.  

In fact, when I look at the AMI Agencies…remember, I see their full financials…they’re sitting at about $135,000 of AGI per FTE, so much better. Most agencies are riding right at $100,000 or $110,000. And I will tell you, if your ratios are down in that $100,000-110,000 mark, you should be concerned. And what that probably tells me is that you do not have a very profitable agency, that you’re making salary and you’re covering your overhead but there’s not a lot left over for Uncle Sam, or for you, or for bonuses, or for reinvesting in your agency. So the first thing I want you to start measuring is AGI per FTE and, remember, the target is $150,000 of AGI per FTE, but you can feel pretty comfortable if you’re at the $130,000 mark or above, but anything below that should cause you some concern.


Agency Metric #2: Project Write-Offs and Write-Ups

The second thing I want you to start measuring is I want you to start looking at your projects and most of you are using some sort of an accounting software that will give you this data, you just aren’t really looking at it. And I want you to start tracking, for every project, how much you go over, meaning what do you write off that job, and are not able to bill a client, and what projects do you come in under? So, if you tell a client a project’s gonna cost $10,000 and you can bring it in for $8,000, I want you to start counting that $2,000 as, basically, pure profit. So I want you to start measuring your over-under.

So how often are you over budget and do you have to write off time or, in some cases, horrifyingly, hard cost? How often are you writing stuff off and what is that number? What are you writing off? And, also, what are you writing up? What are you able to add as pure profit to a job because you have either estimated super well, the job has gone according to plan, which hardly ever happens, and/or your folks were super efficient and you were able to add some extra profit to that job?

I think what happens is…and, you know, when you start measuring this, I think you’re gonna be a little horrified at how much you are giving away. And when agencies call me and they say, “Man, we are working like dogs. We’re super busy, we’ve got lots of client work, but we can’t make a dime,” this is one of the places that I look first because, oftentimes, you are working hard and you are working on client work.

Unfortunately, you are over-servicing those clients to a degree that you just can’t afford to continue. And so you are writing off thousands of dollars of time on jobs that could have been invested in other client work. It could have been invested in new business.  It could have been invested in your own agency marketing, but instead it’s squandered on clients that you can’t recoup those costs. And, oftentimes, you are not very often coming in under-budget, meaning there’s no opportunity for you to add pure profit to the jobs.  

And, oftentimes, what that is telling you is that you have a process problem or that your estimates are off. Remember, lots of you have heard me say that I believe that agencies should put together an estimate, and then multiply it by about 1.5, and that’s actually an accurate estimate. We create estimates as though the job is gonna go according to plan and there’s gonna be nothing, no twist or turn in the job, nothing that you haven’t anticipated. And the reality is, when was the last time you had a job like that? No project goes through exactly as planned. No project goes through without a hiccup or two. But that’s how we build our estimates, which means our estimates are always gonna, really, be short.  

And so by measuring the over-under, you’re able to track how you’re doing on that and I think you’ll be surprised that just paying attention to it, how you can reduce the overages and increase your estimating prowess so that, more often than not, there’s additional profit in the job. And I could spend a whole podcast on talking about estimates, and I’ll do that down the road, but, for now, I just want you to start measuring the overage and the under when you’re adding extra profit.  


Agency Metric #3: Profitability by Client

The third thing I want you to start tracking is…and again, your accounting software should do this for you…I want you to look at profitability by client. Oftentimes, agencies will look at their profitability overall but they won’t drill it down to a per-client number. And the truth of the matter is, for most of you, you have some clients that are wildly profitable and you have other clients that, literally, you are paying for the privilege of doing work for them. It’s not that they’re…have low profit, it’s that they have no profit. And I want you to start tracking that on a monthly and quarterly basis and I want you to have a minimum acceptable profitability number. I don’t care what it is. I don’t care if it’s 5% or 3% or 10% or 20%. Every agency’s gonna have a different number. I have opinions about where you should target that. You know, I don’t think a client that is less than 10% profitable is a client that deserves to be in your shop.  

But look at where you’re at now first and then figure out how to incrementally increase that. And the way you do that is by monitoring it, and by identifying which clients aren’t profitable, and then spending some time figuring out why they’re not profitable, and then coming up with a solution. In some cases, the solution may be fire the client. Or, in a kinder way, get more expensive so that the client fires you. In other cases, it might be sitting down with the client and figuring out, “You know what? We’ve gotta handle jobs differently because we’re doing so many revisions,” or, “There’s so many delays,” or whatever the problem is that’s causing them to be not profitable. You need to figure out what that is and address that so that they either are more profitable or they go away. Because, again, you’re wasting resources, just like when you over-service a client. If you’re working at client work that doesn’t yield a profit for your agency, why are you bothering? For many of you it’s about cash flow, and that’s a really dangerous trap to fall into. You need clients that both provide you cash flow and profitability. A client that provides only cash flow, in the short run is lovely, but in the long run can kill your business.


Agency Metric #4: Set a Minimum Engagement per Client

The fourth thing I want you to start measuring is I want you to have a minimum engagement with a client. First thing I want you to do is have a list of your clients and what they, annually, are worth to you in both gross billings and AGI. And then I want you to set a minimum for gross billings and, more importantly, for AGI. And, again, for some of you it might be $5,000. For others of you, it might be $250,000 a year. I don’t care what the number is but what I care is that you are looking at…and especially when you combine it with profitability. When you have an Excel spreadsheet of your clients and you have their gross billings, their AGI, and their profitability percentage, you’re gonna see very quickly what size clients you can absolutely service, and service in a way that they are delighted and that you are delighted because they’re profitable.  

And, by the way, for some of you, you’re gonna have clients that are too small to be profitable and you’re also gonna have clients that are too big to be profitable. Sometimes, serving a client that is so large that they have you running like a banshee all of the time and you can’t really make them happy, and that you’re having to re-do and over-do and all of that, that can be as big a problem as a small client. So I want you to know what your sweet spot is in terms of client AGI, and what size clients are the ones that are the right fit for you, both in terms of being able to deliver great work and in terms of profitability for your agency.

And then, once you’ve figured that out, I want you to constantly be monitoring your current clients against that number, and any client who falls below that number, you’ve got two choices. One, again, fire them or, two, figure out how to grow that business and get them into the acceptable range. And, by the way, getting your foot in the door and having a small project with someone because you think there’s great opportunity, I am all about that strategy. But, if you did that three years ago and you still haven’t gotten to your minimum, it’s not gonna happen. So stop fooling yourself and get rid of that client, and let your people spend more time serving the clients that actually do deliver profitability to your agency. So again, have a minimum and, for some of you, you also need to have a maximum. Know exactly where your sweet spot is in terms of the size of clients that you can win, that you can delight, that you can deliver incredible results, and you can do all of that at a reasonable profit for your agency.  


Agency Metric #5: Actually Using Timesheets

And you know what? The last thing I want you to measure is what ties all of these things together and this is the one that you all are gonna hate…timesheets. I know that there are consultants out there that tell you agency folks should not have to do timesheets and, quite honestly, I think they’re totally full of crap.

I think you absolutely have to have timesheets, not because I want you billing by the hour, because you know I don’t. I do not think that’s an effective way for you to bill for your time. But your people are your biggest asset and your biggest resource, and your biggest expense. And you need to know how you are using that asset, and how you are applying that resource, to know whether or not you’re doing it well or if there’s room for improvement and it all starts with timesheets.

You cannot really track over and under hours if you don’t do timesheets. You cannot track AGI per FTE because you don’t really know how much people are working and what the equivalence of an FTE is. For you, an FTE might be 30 hours. For you, an FTE might be 50 hours. You don’t know unless your people are doing accurate timesheets. You cannot know the profitability per client until you know how much time has been applied against every one of those projects for every one of those clients. And you cannot know what your minimum should be or your maximum should be because, again, if you don’t know how much time is being applied to projects, how in the world do you know?  

And, by the way, this isn’t just timesheets for your creative team. This isn’t just timesheets for your account people. Every human being who works in your office, and yes, that means you, needs to do timesheets.

Why? Because of all the reasons I just told you. You’ve got to manage your business better than you are doing right now if you do not require timesheets, or if you are sloppy and lazy about timesheet compliance.

I know that timesheets suck. I’ve been in the agency business my entire life. I have never been excited about doing a timesheet but that doesn’t mean that they’re not important. So here’s what I want you to do. I want you to make a commitment that timesheets are gonna be one of the things that you measure. And what you’re gonna measure is you’re gonna measure daily timesheet compliance…daily timesheet compliance. I know that it stinks. I know that it’s gonna be a tough hill to climb.

But, I’m telling you, you will be amazed at how much more profitable you are, how much smarter you are about running your business, and how much more in control you feel about your assets and your resources when you do this.

I’ve written about how to get agency employees to do their time sheets before, but here’s another way for how to make that happen. You pull everybody together and you just tell them that it’s your fault…that you have allowed them to be sloppy about their timesheets, but no more. And, by the way, this was a hotter topic when the whole overtime law was pending. But even though that’s gone away…and who knows if it’ll come back or not, it doesn’t matter…this is critical to your business. Everybody has to do timesheets.

So you bring everybody together and you say to them, “You know what? We are gonna do timesheets, and we are gonna have 100% compliance, and here’s how this is gonna work. We are gonna put together a kitty of money,” so it could be $250, $500 a month, “and here’s how that plays out. So, first of all, we are gonna have software…” and maybe you already have it…”We’re gonna have software where people have no excuse not to do their timesheets. They can do it from their phone, they can log in remotely, whatever it is, but there’s no excuse. Everyone’s timesheet is due the following day at 10:00 a.m. So if today is a Tuesday, my time sheet is due tomorrow at 10:00 a.m. on Wednesday…” everybody’s, including yours.  

If, for every person who gets their timesheet in, Monday through Friday, on time…so they get them all in on time, they’re gonna get one entry into a drawing. So, over the course of a month, they could have four to five entries, depending on how many weeks there in the month, in the drawing for the money, right? But if, during that week, there is not 95% compliance, then nobody’s name goes in the drawing that week. So, every morning at 9:00 a.m., your CFO or your bookkeeper, whoever has access to your timesheet software, sends an email out and says, “Here’s a list of the people whose timesheets are still due by 10:00 a.m.”

You will be stunned at the peer pressure that is created inside your organization to get those timesheets done. And all of a sudden, you’re gonna have…I had an agency that went from 67% compliance to 98% compliance within three months of implementing this program. And, by the way, their profitability went up by several percentage points as well, but not because of clients, not because of new projects, simply because they were monitoring the time better and they were therefore billing more accurately, which allowed them to do estimates more accurately.  

So again, let me run through this program, right? So $250 to $500 in the kitty every month…every time somebody gets all five timesheets in on time, they get an entry into the pot but only if 95% of the entire agency, including you, has the timesheets done. Every day, someone is reporting out at about 9:00 what time sheets are in jeopardy of not being done on time and you allow peer pressure…and, by the way, you also pick up the phone or walk over to somebody’s office, or however you communicate with them, ping ’em, but you let them know that you expect them to get those timesheets done within the hour. Right? So, all month that happens. If, three weeks out of the four, you do not hit 95% compliance, there is no drawing that month.  

So before you start going, “Oh, I don’t wanna spend $6,000 a year on having, you know, compliance in my timesheets,” I promise you, you are losing way more than $6,000 a year by not having timesheet compliance. I promise you, you’re making hiring decisions incorrectly. I promise you, you have some slackers on your team that are sliding under the radar because you don’t have the accurate data. I promise you that you are sending out bills inaccurately and you are leaving money on the table because you’re not doing timesheets.  

Doing the timesheets allows you to monitor and measure all five of these things that I’m talking about. So again, it’s AGI per FTE. Shoot for $150,000…be content at $130,000-ish or so. Anything below that…be worried. Number two, start measuring your over and under, in terms of over-servicing clients or being able to add extra profit onto jobs. Number three, tracking profitability by client and having a minimum standard for that. Number four, having a minimum standard for AGI for all of your clients, and having a program in place to move people up to that minimum. And also being mindful of a cap if you need to have a cap and see there are certain clients that are just too big for us. We can’t knock it out of the park for them. And, number five, you tie all that up with a bow by doing timesheets.  

If you monitor those five things, I think you’re gonna be stunned at what comes out of that in the next quarter or six months. I promise you, profitability is gonna be up, your estimates are gonna be better, you’re gonna be giving away less money, and you’re gonna be putting more money in your pocket. And, by the way, you’re also gonna be able to monitor and measure your resources better so you’re gonna know who to hire and when to hire them. All of that leads to a more profitable, better run, agency, which is, I know, what your goal is and it’s my goal for you. So, please, put some of these things into place, and let me know how it goes.  

That’s it. That’s my message for today. I hope it was helpful. I know it was not a fun message. I’m sorry. I’ll try and have a more fun one next time but it’s super important and I want you to make the most out of the risks that you’re taking. Remember that most people don’t have the courage to do what you’re doing, which is to run their own business, and most people aren’t willing to take the risks. So if you’re that person, if you’re willing to take those risks, I wanna make sure that you also get the reward, and monitoring and measuring these five things will help get you there.

I will be back with you next week with a guest who will share their expertise with us. In the meantime, if you need to reach me, I’m [email protected]. If these podcasts are helpful to you, please subscribe. Make sure you don’t miss one. We have a new one every week and I wanna make sure they get in front of you. Also, would be super grateful if you would leave a rating or review.

So, if you are getting this through Google or Stitcher or iTunes, however you’re accessing the podcast, if you would go and leave us a rating and a review that really helps us boost our rank in all of those so that more people can find us, and we can add more value to independent agency owners, which is what we’re all about.

So, I’ll catch you next week. In the meantime, if you need me, you know how to get me. Talk to you soon.

That’s all for this episode of Build a Better Agency on key agency metrics. Be sure to visit to learn more about our workshops and other ways we serve small-to-midsize agencies. While you’re there, sign up for our e-newsletter, grab our free e-book, and check out the blog. Growing a bigger, better agency that makes more money, attracts bigger clients, and doesn’t consume your life is possible here on Build a Better Agency.